Russell (History of Western Philosophy) did not understand Nietzsche when he said that he was an essentially moral philosopher.
As Kubrik later explored in his magnificent film (2001:A Space Odyssey), Nietzsche realized the full implications of Darwin’s ideas. He knew his Materialism (Frederick Lange docet).
He was the first to frame the collapse of a Parmenidean Fixed World and the emergence of a dynamic view of the world itself. Is it possible to identify some invariants in dynamical systems?
The reference today appears to be again and again Norbert Wiener.